Mediation: The Art of Collaborative Conflict Resolution

Explore the world of dispute resolution methods, focusing on mediation as a collaborative alternative. Delve into the nuances and its contrast with arbitration and litigation, and its efficacy.

Mediation, a pivotal component of alternative dispute resolution, offers a distinctive and collaborative approach to resolving conflicts. Unlike the more adversarial and formal methods of arbitration and litigation, mediation emphasizes voluntary participation, confidentiality, and the flexibility to tailor solutions to the specific needs of the parties involved. As an introductory overview, this article delves into the nuances of mediation, contrasting it with arbitration and litigation, while outlining its process and efficacy in fostering amicable resolutions before exploring mediation under DIAC Mediation Rules 2023.

The Art of Collaborative Conflict Resolution
Alternative Dispute Resolution

In the realm of dispute resolution, various methodologies exist, each offering unique characteristics and processes tailored to different types of conflicts. The most commonly recognized forms are mediation, arbitration, and litigation. However, in certain jurisdictions, additional methods such as negotiation, conciliation, and med-arb (a hybrid of mediation and arbitration) etc. also play a significant role. Understanding the full spectrum of dispute resolution options is crucial, as the choice of method can significantly impact the outcome, efficiency, and satisfaction of the parties involved in a dispute.

Here’s how they differ:


Voluntary Process: Mediation is inherently voluntary, enabling parties to choose their participation and maintain control over the outcome. Should any party decline to participate, mediation cannot proceed, effectively halting the process.

Neutral Third Party: A mediator, a neutral third party, facilitates communication and negotiation between the parties and has no decision-making role.

Obligation to accept the settlement terms: Parties are not obligated to accept any proposed settlement. But once agreed and a settlement agreement is signed it is binding.

Confidential: Mediation is confidential, and discussions and information shared during mediation are not admissible in court.

Informal: The process is less formal and adversarial than litigation or arbitration, promoting open dialogue.

Customized Solutions: Parties can craft creative and customized solutions to their dispute.

Time and Cost Efficiency: Mediation is often faster and less costly than litigation or arbitration.

Preservation of Relationships: Mediation aims to preserve relationships between parties.


Binding Process: Arbitration is a binding process, and the decision of the arbitrator is legally enforceable.

Neutral Third Party: An arbitrator, a neutral third party, acts as a decision-maker and renders an award.

Adjudicative: Arbitration resembles a simplified court proceeding with formal rules and procedures.

Limited Appeals: The ability to appeal an arbitral award is typically restricted compared to litigation.

Less Formal than Litigation: While formal, arbitration is often less formal and more efficient than litigation.

Costs: Arbitration costs are generally higher than litigation and mediation.

Enforceability: Arbitration awards are enforceable in courts.

Preserves Privacy: Like mediation, arbitration can preserve privacy as it is not conducted in open court.


Compulsory Process: Litigation is a compulsory legal process initiated by one party filing a lawsuit against another.

Judicial Process: It is conducted in a court of law, with a judge and, in some cases, a jury.

Adversarial: Litigation is an adversarial process, pitting one party against the other.

Binding Judgment: The court issues a binding judgment, and non-compliance can result in penalties.

Public Proceedings: Litigation is conducted in open court, and records are public.

Appeal Process: Parties have the right to appeal the court’s decisions, leading to potentially lengthy proceedings.

Formal and Procedural: Litigation involves formal rules and procedures, leading to potentially lengthy and costly proceedings.

Judicial Decision: The judge renders a decision based on applicable laws and evidence presented.

In summary, mediation is a voluntary, non-binding, and confidential process focused on collaboration and custom solutions. Arbitration is a binding, adjudicative process, often less formal than litigation. Litigation is a compulsory, binding, and formal legal process conducted in open court. The choice between these methods depends on the nature of the dispute, the parties’ preferences, and the desired outcome.

Indeed, a notable distinguishing feature of mediation, particularly when contrasted with arbitration and litigation, lies in the immediacy of its outcomes when a settlement is reached. In mediation, once the parties arrive at a mutual agreement, the result is essentially instantaneous and can be implemented without delay. This contrasts sharply with the processes of arbitration and litigation, where even after a decision or award is made, there often remains a requirement for formal filing of execution cases to enforce the judgment or award. This additional procedural step can introduce delays and complexities, making the enforcement of arbitration awards or litigation judgments more time-consuming and potentially cumbersome. Thus, the efficiency and prompt effectiveness of mediation, especially in terms of the implementation of agreements, stand out as key advantages of this dispute resolution method.

Role of Parties

In a mediation process, there are certain behaviors and actions that should be avoided to ensure the process remains productive and conducive to resolving the dispute amicably. Here are some things that should not happen in a mediation:

Lack of Cooperation: Parties should not refuse to cooperate or engage in the mediation process in bad faith. A willingness to participate and collaborate is essential.

Lack of Communication: Parties should not refuse to communicate or engage in hostile or aggressive communication. Open and respectful dialogue is crucial.

Unwillingness to Compromise: Mediation involves negotiation and compromise. Parties should not be unwilling to consider alternative solutions or rigidly stick to their initial positions.

Personal Attacks: Personal attacks, insults, or disrespectful behavior towards the other party or the mediator should not occur. Parties should maintain a professional and respectful demeanor.

Violations of Confidentiality: Parties should not disclose confidential information shared during mediation outside of the mediation process. Maintaining confidentiality is a fundamental aspect of mediation.

Coercion or Duress: Parties should not attempt to coerce or pressure the other party into accepting a particular outcome. Mediation should be a voluntary process.

Refusal to Explore Solutions: Parties should not refuse to engage in problem-solving or exploring potential solutions to the dispute. The goal of mediation is to find a mutually acceptable resolution.

Non-Compliance with Agreements: If an agreement is reached during mediation, parties should not later refuse to comply with the terms of the agreement. The agreement is binding.

Failure to Participate in Good Faith: Parties should not engage in the mediation process with the intention of delaying or obstructing the resolution process.

Legal Strategy: While parties can have legal counsel present in mediation, it should not be used as a platform to advance litigation or as a substitute for negotiation.

Refusal to Listen: Parties should not refuse to listen to the other party’s perspective or dismiss their concerns without consideration.

External Influence: Parties should not allow external influences, such as friends or family members, or even their lawyers to interfere in the mediation process.

Failure to Respect the Mediator’s Role: Parties should respect the mediator’s role as a neutral facilitator and not attempt to influence or pressure the mediator’s decisions.

Withholding Information: Parties should not withhold relevant information that could help in resolving the dispute. Transparency is important.

Escalation of Conflict: Parties should not use mediation as an opportunity to escalate the conflict further.

Mediation is most effective when parties approach it with a spirit of cooperation, willingness to find common ground, and respect for the process and each other. Avoiding the above behaviors contributes to a more successful mediation process.

Role of a Mediator

Mediators play a crucial role in facilitating the mediation process and ensuring its effectiveness. To maintain their neutrality and professionalism, mediators should avoid certain behaviors and actions. Here are things that a mediator should not do:

Bias or Favoritism: A mediator should not show bias or favoritism towards any party. They must remain impartial and treat all parties equally.

Giving Legal Advice: Mediators are not legal advisors. They should not provide legal advice to any party during the mediation process. Parties should consult their own legal counsel for legal guidance.

Imposing Solutions: Mediators should not impose their own solutions or opinions on the parties. Their role is to facilitate communication and negotiation, not make decisions for the parties.

Taking Sides: Mediators should avoid taking sides or advocating for one party’s position over another. Neutrality is essential.

Offering Personal Opinions: Mediators should refrain from expressing personal opinions about the dispute or the parties’ positions. They should maintain a neutral stance.

Engaging in Conflict of Interest: Mediators should disclose any potential conflicts of interest and should not mediate a case where their impartiality might be compromised.

Pressuring Parties: Mediators should not pressure parties into accepting a particular outcome. The mediation process should be voluntary, and decisions should be made by the parties themselves.

Violating Confidentiality: Maintaining confidentiality is a fundamental principle of mediation. Mediators should not breach confidentiality by disclosing information shared during the process. If there is a need or desire to share information disclosed by one party with the other party or any external entity, it is essential to first obtain explicit consent from the party that originally disclosed the information.

Losing Control of the Process: Mediators should maintain control over the mediation process, ensuring that it remains focused and productive.

Engaging in Unauthorized Activities: Mediators should not engage in activities outside their role as mediators, such as providing legal representation or other professional services to the parties.

Making Promises: Mediators should not make promises to the parties about the outcome of the mediation or guarantees of success.

Engaging in Personal Attacks: Mediators should not engage in personal attacks, insults, or disrespectful behavior towards any party.

Lack of Preparation: Mediators should be adequately prepared for each mediation session and familiarize themselves with the case details.

Failure to Manage Time: Mediators should manage the time effectively during mediation sessions to ensure that the process proceeds efficiently.

Mediators are responsible for creating a safe and productive environment for parties to engage in meaningful discussions and work towards resolution. Avoiding the behaviors mentioned above is essential to fulfilling their role effectively.

Typical Mediation Process

The step-by-step process of a typical mediation session can vary depending on the mediator’s style and the preferences of the parties involved and the applicable Law or Rules. However, here is a general outline of the mediation process, including when the opening statements are given:


The mediation session begins with an introduction by the mediator. The mediator explains the process, sets ground rules, and emphasizes the principles of confidentiality, impartiality, and voluntary participation.

 Role of Lawyers:

Parties involved in mediation in the UAE may choose to have legal representation during the process, but lawyers are not mandatory in mediation.

Opening Statements:

After the introduction, the mediator typically invites each party to make an opening statement. The opening statement is an opportunity for each party to:

  • Express their perspective on the dispute.
  • Share their concerns, interests, and objectives.
  • Outline what they hope to achieve through mediation.

Caucus Meetings:

  • During the mediation session, the mediator may conduct private caucus meetings with each party separately. In caucus meetings:
  • Parties can share confidential information with the mediator.
  • The mediator can explore potential settlement options with each party individually.
  • Parties can discuss their preferences and concerns with the mediator privately.

Negotiation and Problem-Solving:

  • Throughout the mediation, the mediator assists parties in negotiating and finding common ground.
  • Problem-solving techniques, brainstorming, and creative solutions may be explored to address the issues in dispute.
  • The mediator helps parties generate options and consider alternatives.

Joint Discussion:

  • Following the opening statements, the mediator may facilitate a joint discussion where parties engage in direct communication. This discussion allows parties to:
  • Clarify their positions.
  • Ask questions and seek information.
  • Begin exploring potential solutions.

Closing Statements:

  • Towards the end of the mediation session, parties may have an opportunity to make closing statements. Closing statements allow parties to:
  • Summarize their positions and any progress made.
  • Express their commitment to finding a resolution.
  • Discuss their willingness to comply with any agreements reached.

Agreement or Next Steps:

  • If the parties reach an agreement during mediation, the terms are documented, and the agreement becomes binding.
  • If no agreement is reached, the mediator may discuss next steps, which could include scheduling additional mediation sessions or exploring other dispute resolution options.


  • The mediation session concludes with a final summary by the mediator, including any agreed-upon action items or future sessions.
  • The timing of the opening statements can vary, but they typically occur after the initial introduction and before the joint discussion. However, some mediators may choose to adapt the process based on the unique circumstances of the case or the preferences of the parties involved.

Author’s Bio:

Nikhat Sardar Khan, a distinguished legal expert with extensive experience in the UAE’s legal landscape, currently heads the Department of Litigation, ADR and Corporate at Hilal & Associates Advocates & Legal Consultants. Her expertise encompasses complex litigation and dispute resolution in commercial matters, banking, finance, corporate practice, and more. As a qualified arbitrator and experienced mediator, she holds certifications from prestigious institutions like the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (FCIArb) and The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). Her legal acumen, honed over decades of practice in both India and the UAE, positions her as a formidable figure in the field of law.

Nikhat Sardar Khan (FCIArb)(RICS)
Head of DIFC Litigation, Corporate & Arbitration- UAE,
MENA and India.
Arbitrator | Mediator | DIFC Practitioner
Email: ni****@hi*************.com

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